BIMBINGAN DENGAN TEKNIK PERILAKU (BEHAVIOUR THERAPY ) UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN SOSIAL ANAK ADHD (ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)

Nur Faizah Romadona, Aan Listiana, Euis Kurniati

Abstract


Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Children with ADHD frequently have social skills deficits, such as tend to be aggressive, overly  talkative, domineering, impulsive, immature and to intense. These behavior may be a by-product of primary symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity, which contribute to low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and decreased academic performance. The number of children with ADHD in the world and particularly in Indonesia continues to increase recently. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of behavior therapy to improve social skills of children with ADHD by single subject design. The data analyzed by visual analysis. Participants were 2 children 7-8-years-old who had been diagnosed with ADHD by their psychologist. Behavior therapy program used in this study were token reinforcement and  response cost. This program implemented by parents and teachers. The result of the study suggest that guidance with behavior therapy effectively increase the sosial skills of the children with ADHD, in the aspect of cooperation, assertiveness, responsibility, empathy, and self control. The recomendation will give to the teachers and parents to use the procedur in order to increase the social skills of their children with ADHD.


ABSTRAK

Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) merupakan gangguan perkembangan pada masa anak yang dapat berlanjut hingga usia dewasa. Anak ADHD seringkali memiliki keterampilan sosial yang rendah akibat perilakunya yang cenderung agresif, mendominasi, impulsif, kurang matang, dan banyak bicara. Perilaku ini merupakan akibat dari trias gejala utama ADHD yaitu kurang perhatian, impulsif dan agresif, yang dapat mengakibatkan munculnya gangguan lain seperti self-esteem yang rendah, depresi, kecemasan, dan penurunan prestasi akademik. Saat ini jumlah anak ADHD mengalami peningkatan, baik di dunia maupun di Indoneisa. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah penerapan bimbingan dengan terapi perilaku (behavior therapy) dapat meningkatkan keterampilan anak ADHD di kelas rendah? Subyek merupakan dua orang anak laki-laki usia 7-8 tahun. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah single subject design (desain subjek tunggal) dengan desai ABA. Data disajikan dalam grafik dan dianalisis dengan analisis visual. Model bimbingan dengan terapi perilaku diberikan bagi guru dan orangtua dalam 7 sesi pertemuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan bimbingan dengan terapi perilaku efektif dapat meningkatkan keterampilan sosial anak ADHD kelas rendah, yang meliputi aspek kerjasama, sikap asertif, tanggung jawab, empati, dan kontrol diri. Rekomendasi diberikan bagi guru, orang tua anak ADHD maupun kepala sekolah, agar mempertimbangkan penerapan bimbingan dengan terapi perilaku untuk meningkatkan keterampilan sosial anak ADHD di kelas rendah.



Keywords


Bimbingan; terapi perilaku; anak ADHD; keterampilan sosial

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